Having arrived at your destination you then need to get around. The size of the town might mean that your two feet are all you need or alternatively you might find that the use of local transport is essential.
There are obviously many different forms of transport in most cities and what you choose to use is up to you. Care should always be taken especially at night and remember to check the time of the last transport home or be prepared to get a taxi.
Before you head out it is worth researching into what tickets are available. Unless you know a system well it is not worth trying to dodge or over ride tickets if you get caught you might be fined.
With any of the above tickets it is also important to know how far or what area you can travel in. Some may allow you complete freedom or you may only be able to use it in the centre of the city. Check out where you wish to go before you purchase the ticket.
It might be necessary to validate a ticket before travel this is usually done by inserting the ticket into a machine on the bus, tram or station. In general you might get away if a ticket inspector stops you but you may also face on the spot fines.
While the above mainly covers travelling in towns and cities in the Western world travelling in the developing world is not as easy. There are bus routes but trying to find out information is often difficult destinations are often called as the bus passes by or the conductor might give arm signals indicating the route. Find a local to help you and hope for the best.
Taxis are often relatively cheap and often are a quicker bet but be prepared to direct them to your destination. Having bartered a cab driver down to a reasonable fare to take me top a destination in Accra, Ghana he then promptly turned around and asked me where it was!
In other places you might be able to use rickshaws, water taxis or other forms of transport. Just make sure you know how to get back.